If you are thinking of learning web development. Before you start learning there are some basic topics/terminology/definitions that you need to know before starting web development.

What is Network?

A network is a group of computers, servers, or other devices which is interconnected via wired or Wi-Fi that enables the computer to transfer, exchange, or share data or resources.

A real-life example of a network:

When you connect your smartphone, laptop, and Wi-Fi-enabled printer to WiFi, and send print jobs to a Wi-Fi-enabled printer.

Resources: Learn more about network

What is Internet?

The Internet is a network of networks that connects billions of digital devices around the world. Standard protocols allow communication between these devices. One of these protocols is the HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol, which stands for the URL of any website). an IP (Internet Protocol) address is a unique identifier required by every device that connects to the Internet. IP addresses are similar to your mailing address and provide location-specific information so that information can be sent correctly.

Resources: Learn more about IP Addresses

What is a URL?

A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is the address of a resource on the Internet and the protocol used to access it.

What is a URL?
  • Protocol: It defines the mode/rules of communications between the client and server for the request. in this case “https://”.
  • Hostname/Domain name: It identifies the server which will serve the request. it contains the domain name. in this case “www.flipkart.com”.
  • Path: It defines the resource which is being requested. it typically points to the webpage. in this case “books”.
  • Query String: It typically contains any additional parameters that are typically used to add more context to the same path. in this case “pr?sid=bks&q=web+app”.

What is The World Wide Web?

The World Wide Web commonly referred to as the Web, is an information system where documents and other Web resources are identified by uniform resource locators accessible through interconnected hyperlinks on the Internet.

The birth of the web:

British scientist Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web (WWW) while working at CERN in 1989. The web was originally developed to meet the demand for automated information exchange between scientists at universities and institutions around the world.

The first website at CERN and in the world – was dedicated to the World Wide Web project itself and was hosted on Berners-Lee’s NeXT computer. In 2013, CERN launched a project to restore this first-ever website: info.cern.ch.

What is a web browser?

A web browser is also known as a browser (web Client). This is application software used to access the World Wide Web. When a user requests a web page from a specific website, the web browser downloads the requested content from the webserver and renders (displays) it on the user device.

  • The first web browser was invented in 1990 called WorldWideWeb which was later renamed Nexus. Written in Objective-C language.
  • The second web browser was released in 1991 also known as LMB, WWWLib, or just www. Written in C language.

What are Domain and DNS?

Domain names are basically easy-to-remember shortcuts to numeric IP addresses.it formed by the rules and procedures of the Domain Name System (DNS).

Resources: Learn more about Domain names

The Domain Name System or DNS converts human-readable domain names (like: www.google.com) into Internet Protocol (IP) addresses (like: for a better and easier understanding, DNS is usually compared to a phone book. When you want to call someone, you check their number in the phone book. 

Resources: Learn more about DNS

What is a web app?

A web application or web app is an application that runs on a web server and allows users to use the web application through a web browser with an active network connection. and These applications follow client-server architecture.

What is a Web Server?

A web server can listen to requests and respond back with data on the same connection. it communicates with a web browser using HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). The content of most web pages is encoded in HTML (Hypertext Markup Language). The content can be static or dynamic. To deliver dynamic content, most web servers support server‑side scripting languages like PHP, ASP.NET, Node. js, Java, Ruby, Perl, and Python.

What is Client-Server Architecture?

Client-server architecture is a computing model in which the server hosts, delivers, and manages most of the resources and services to be consumed by the client. This type of architecture has one or more client computers connected to a central server over a network or internet connection. Client-server architecture is also known as a networking computing model or client-server network because all the requests and services are delivered over a network.

How does the thing work?

In the client-server architecture, when the client computer sends a request for data to the server through the internet, the server accepts the request, processes it, and delivers the data packets requested back to the client. One special feature is that the server computer has the potential to manage numerous clients at the same time. Also, a single client can connect to numerous servers at a single timestamp, where each server provides a different set of services to that specific client.

What is Hosting?

Hosting is a service of sharing space for storing a website or application on a server on the Internet. After you share your site available on the Internet, you can access it from other computers connected to the Internet.

There are types of hosting:

  • Shared Hosting: Shared hosting is a hosting solution where multiple sites use the same server resources (bandwidth, disk space, and memory allocation). Being the most cost-effective hosting solution, shared hosting is suitable for small blogs or moderate-traffic business sites.
  • Dedicated Hosting: Dedicated hosting is a website hosting environment that provides the highest level of resource allocation, privacy, and control. Dedicated servers are completely isolated from each other so that users have full access to the server configuration in any way without affecting another user or the actions of other users.
  • VPS hosting: VPS stands for “Virtual Private Server”. Let’s break it down. As the name suggests, this is a private server. VPS services provide a certain amount of resources such as RAM and CPU that do not need to be shared with others. It’s like having a dedicated server or a very private server, but virtual. In this case, “virtual” means a partition on a dedicated physical server. This virtual server allows you to gain root access, install your favorite operating system and work on your projects with unprecedented freedom. the VPS provider will take care of servers, and ensure speed, availability, and reliability, and you can focus on your project.
  • Cloud Hosting: Cloud hosting is fairly similar to VPS hosting, but the main difference is that while VPS relies on physical servers, cloud hosting is based on several interconnected servers spread over a wide geographical area. This allows you to spread your data across these widely distributed virtual servers (thus the name cloud) and serve your customers more efficiently. Where the VPS has limitations on bandwidth and data transfers, cloud hosting usually does not. Cloud hosting is also considered the new, more modern solution to hosting web apps and online businesses, given the efficiencies and advantages. Therefore, it is suitable for most businesses.

What is API?

An API is a set of programming codes that enables data transmission between one software product and another. It also contains the terms of this data exchange.

API specifications/protocols:

The goal of API specifications is to standardize data exchange between web services. In this case, standardization means the ability of diverse systems, written in different programming languages and/or running on different OSs, or using different technologies, to seamlessly communicate with each other.

There are Some API specifications:

  • Remote Procedure Call (RPC)
  • Service Object Access Protocol (SOAP)
  • Representational State Transfer (REST)
  • gRPC
  • GraphQL

What is Git?

Git is an Open Source Distributed Version Control System. designed to handle everything from small to very large projects with speed and efficiency. Git tracks the changes you make to files, so you have a record of what has been done, and you can revert to specific versions should you ever need to. Git also makes collaboration easier, allowing changes by multiple people to all to be merged into one source.

Let me break it down and explain the wording:

  • Control System: This basically means that Git is a content tracker. So Git can be used to store content — it is mostly used to store code due to the other features it provides.
  • Version Control System: The code which is stored in Git keeps changing as more code is added. Also, many developers can add code in parallel. So Version Control System helps in handling this by maintaining a history of what changes have happened. Also, Git provides features like branches and merges, which I will be covering later.
  • Distributed Version Control System: Git has a remote repository that is stored in a server and a local repository that is stored in the computer of each developer. This means that the code is not just stored in a central server, but the full copy of the code is present in all the developers’ computers. Git is a Distributed Version Control System since the code is present in every developer’s computer. I will explain the concept of remote and local repositories later in this article.

Thank You: ♥